The team taking the kick out kicks it short for whatever reason. An attacking player can play the ball before it travels 13m but a defending player (apart from the kicker) cannot touch it until it travels 13m (even if the ball stops moving!!!). If they do it is a throw ball.
The keeper may take a second and subsequent kick(s) on the ball but may not take it to hand. Once the first kick is taken the opponent may tackle / challenge for the ball as normal.
Have heard about this happening and keeper argued with the ref when incorrectly blown up for it. Ended up with a yellow for dissent!!!
Also keep an eye out on kick outs being kicked to a team mate and receiving its on the 20m in the arc. Seldom blown up for it - even at inter county - even though the ball has not travelled 13m (may have been 13m away when the ball was kicked, but unlike a free, the ball must travel 13m before being played by a team mate.